Confederates in Pittsburgh
by James Wudarczyk
In 1863 General John Hunt Morgan led 2,400 Confederate cavalry over a thousand miles in one of the most incredible military feats of the Civil War. In less than a month, the campaign was over. However, Morgan succeeded in reaching Ohio, after crossing through Kentucky and Indiana. Morgan's raiders were so feared that a song was frequently sung with the verse, "Hang John Morgan from a sour apple tree."
Morgan pushed his men relentlessly. Often they spent 21 hours a day in the saddle. All along the way, General Henry Judah's cavalry, Union Gunboats and Home Guard units, pursued him.
Morgan's objectives have never been clearly identified. Some theorize that he ultimately wanted to strike at Pittsburgh and destroy its famous Allegheny Arsenal. Other historians believe that Morgan hoped his raids would relieve pressure on Southern armies in Tennessee. Still others hold that Morgan sought to force the Union to dedicate more men to protect their Northern railroad lines, and thus divert more troops from being deployed in the South.
Local historian Joseph A. Borkowski noted that Morgan might have had another agenda in mind. Borkowski believed that some of the General's aims may be found in a quote from Basil Duke, Morgan's brother-in-law, who said, "Morgan ordered me three weeks previously to send intelligent men to examine fords on the upper Ohio . . to make an effort to recross it, except at some of these fords, unless he found it more expedient, when he reached that region, to join General Lee, if the latter should still be in that region." Borkowski theorized, "Since that was long before Lee turned north, it would appear that his action and Morgan's raid were part of a grand strategy, rather than the spur of the moment affairs they are often thought."
George Dallas Mosgrove was probably closest to the heart of the matter when he wrote, "Lee was marching toward Pennsylvania and Bragg, in danger of being overwhelmed by Rosencrans, directed Morgan to create a diversion by marching into Kentucky and threatening Louisville. Being essentially a free lance, accustomed to independent action, Morgan determined to cross the Ohio River, General Bragg's order to the contrary notwithstanding." Mosgrove also describes Morgan as "The prince of Kentucky cavaliers. . . In person General Morgan was notably graceful and handsome. Six feet in height, his form was perfect, a rare combination of grace, activity and strength."
At the beginning of the Civil War, Morgan was detained from joining the Confederate army because of the illness and death of his wife. As soon as he was able, he secretly organized twenty-five men and reported to General Simon B. Buckner for duty. On April 4, 1862, he was promoted to colonel of the Second Kentucky Cavalry. Early in the war, Morgan distinguished himself by leading 1,000 men from Tennessee and attacking a total of seventeen towns in Kentucky, destroying massive amounts of federal supplies, dispersing 1,500 home guard units, and paroling another 1,200 regular troops. Morgan made earned a reputation for bravery and daring, and was promoted in December of 1862 to the rank of brigadier general.
On July 2nd Morgan began his great march northward and twenty-four days later the campaign was over. Although the campaign ended in defeat and capture, the raid was a stroke of military genius and John Hunt Morgan's men enjoyed many victories along the way. For example, on their march to Lebanon, the raiders captured the garrison, about three hundred men, while losing about fifty men, including Lieutenant Tom Morgan, the general's brother. The forced march was extremely exhausting on both the men and the horses. When the Southerners reached Williamsburg, twenty-eight miles east of Cincinnati, they had marched more than ninety miles in thirty-five hours. This was the greatest march that Morgan had ever made.
One man, who documented the hardships and glories of the campaign in an almost romantic spirit, was Lieutenant Bennett H. Young. Young was only eighteen when he joined Morgan and was one of the officers captured. He later escaped from a Canadian prison and organized twenty-five Confederates on a raid on St. Alban's, Vermont. In his account, originally published in 1914, he set the number of men riding with Morgan on the famous raid at twenty-six hundred and contended that nine-tenths of the cavalry were from Kentucky. According to Bennett, "The Federal watchers thought the great flood in the Cumberland River could temporarily stop Morgan, and with the water on their side, they did not believe it possible for the Confederates to pass over with their artillery and ammunition and get lodgment on the north side of the stream."
He also rendered a detailed account of the battle of Lebanon:
Colonel Charles Hanson, who commanded the Kentucky Federal Infantry, had prepared to make the best defense possible at Lebanon. He placed his men in the brick depot and in the houses surrounding it. General Morgan disliked to leave anything behind, and so he resolved to capture this force. It was captured, but the cost did not justify the losses. It was there that we saw General Morgan's youngest brother, "Tom," as they familiarly called him, go down in the storm. He was a first lieutenant in the 2nd Kentucky and was then serving on General Duke's staff. With the fiery courage of youth, backed by a fearless heart, in the excitement of battle he exposed his person and was struck down by a shot from the depot. War allows no time for partings. It permits no preparation for the great beyond. Standing close to his brother, he could only exclaim, "Brother, I am killed. I am killed," and then fell into the grief-stricken brother's arms. He was a mere lad, but he died like a hero.
The taking of the brick depot with several hundred men inside, in war, is not an easy job. It was to cost ten killed and thirty wounded. Here I witnessed what appeared to be one of the bravest things I have ever observed. The 8th Kentucky-Cluke's- with which I was connected, was ordered to charge the front of the depot. The men were advancing through a field where the weeds were waist-high. It was difficult marching. The thermometer stood over a hundred in the shade, and the foliage of the weeds made the heat still more intense. It was this regiment's fortune to face the larger door of the depot. It was said that somebody had blundered, but the charge was ordered and the men enthusiastically and bravely obeyed. When within a few hundred feet of the door, the order was passed along to "lie down." The time in which the "lying down" was done seemed many hours. The regiment was subject to the stinging fire of the Federals in the depot. A number of the men were hit by shots which struck the front of the body and ranged downward through the limbs of the soldiers. Such wounds produced excruciating tortures.
Young also noted that when the campaign was four hundred miles into enemy territory, Morgan encountered additional problems with unfaithful guides, blocked roads, and frequent ambushes. "The column was three miles long and already there was a number of sick and wounded in buggies and wagons. Under all these conditions, might well ask, 'Can this great task be accomplished?'
"These troopers had never failed him either in the march or on the field. If it were possible for men to do it, he knew it would be done. He knew that they would try, and if they failed it would be only because the accomplishment of such a task was humanly impossible."
At Harrison, Morgan helped himself to the well-filled cribs of corn in order to feed his tired horses and give his men a brief respite. His objective at this point was to mislead General Burnside and his thirty thousand troops stationed at Cincinnati, only thirty-two miles away. Morgan knew that he could not penetrate the wall of infantry that Burnside had thrown up around the city. In the waning days of the campaign, Young noted, "Each step brought increasing suffering. Skirmishes and contact with the militia would arouse the men for a brief while, but with the cessation of the excitement, nature would again lift its cry for mercy and plead for sleep for man and beast."
In his account of the battle of Buffington Island, Mosgrove noted, "Unfortunately for Morgan his column did not reach 'Buffington Island until after nightfall, July 18, too late to attempt the crossing of the river, especially as the night was very dark. His scouts informed him that the ford was guarded by three hundred infantry, protected by an earthwork, and two heavy guns. The delay was fatal. Early on the following morning, however, about five hundred men succeeded in crossing the river, despite the dense fog and the rising tide, unprecedented at that time of the year. Unknown to Morgan, the infantry guard at the ford had abandoned the earthwork some time in the night. At an early hour the troops that had not crossed the river were attacked simultaneously by Hobson's pursuing column and by Judah's forces that had come up the river. At the same time the gunboats appeared and promptly began to throw shells and grapeshot into the ranks of the Confederates who, for a very short time, made a gallant but hopeless fight."
Preservationists fighting to keep Buffington Island from being mined for sand and gravel point out that the battle was important for several reasons: (1) it was the only Civil War battle in which all branches of the armed forces were involved, (2) at least two future U. S. presidents - Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley - participated in the battle, (3) it was the only battle fought in Ohio, and (4) at no fewer than fifty-seven Confederates and five or six Union soldiers were buried on the site in unmarked graves.
All along the way, Morgan fought incredible odds. Some accounts estimate that General Morgan still had one thousand men when he fled Buffington Island on the 19th of July, but was reduced to between 200 and 365 when the pursuit ended six days later. While historians tend to be divided upon the exact number of men who surrendered, all sources were in total agreement on the fact that the Confederate forces were totally exhausted from the long ordeal and were no longer physically able to continue the campaign. By the end of July, he was almost completely out of ammunition. This forced him to negotiate surrender terms with Captain James Burbeck of New Lisbon, who commanded one of the numerous Home Guard units in the chase.
Burbeck apparently was so over-whelmed by the famous general's proposal to surrender to him that Burbeck offered to allow Morgan to name his own terms. "General Morgan, You may write your terms and I will grant them." Morgan agreed not to hurt anything in the area if Captain Burbeck would guide him to the Pennsylvania border where he hoped to ford the Ohio River and continue his journey home via West Virginia or through nearby Beaver, Washington, or Greene county. Furthermore, Morgan asked that the officers and men be pardoned, keep their horses, and the officers retain their side arms. These terms were acceptable to the captain.
However, when Major George W. Rue caught up with Morgan, he refused to honor the agreement. Morgan and his principal officers were sent to the Ohio State prison, where their heads were shaven and their beards clipped like common criminals. Later, Morgan and six of his officers escaped and made it back home.
One hundred eighteen of the men who rode with Morgan were sent to the Western Penitentiary, and on March 19, 1864 were transferred to another prison at Fort Delaware, New Jersey. We are fortunate in that historian Joseph Borkowski identified the names of the Confederate prisoners and compiled a complete list, which is available in the Pennsylvania Department of the Carnegie Library in Oakland. According to Mr. Borkowski's list, the following were interned at the Western Penitentiary:
Alcom, Jas. W. - 1st Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Aldridge, Marcus - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Albright, Wm. B. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Burgess, Thomas P. - 2nd Lt. - Ward's Tenn .Cav.
Bentley, Jas. S. - 2nd Lt. - Ward's Tenn. Cav.
Bower, George W. - 1st Lt. - 5th Kentucky Cav.
Barlow, Michael - 1st Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Brown, F. F. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Brown, Henry D. - 2nd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Bryan, J. D - 1st Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Carry, W. D. - Captain - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Coon, L. H.. - 1st Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Cromwell, H.C. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Corobert, C. C. - 1st Lt - Artillery
Crossery, John N. - 2nd Lt. - Ward's Tenn.. Cav.
Chadwin, Isaac C. - 2nd Lt. - Ward's Tenn..Cav.
Cowan, Samuel N. - 2nd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Crooket, F. B. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Church, Andrew J. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Carr, David N. - 2nd Lt. - Ward's Tenn Cav.
Chew, Anderson - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Cunningham, Robert - 2nd Lt. - Morgan's Cav.
Chambers, L. W. - 2nd Lt. - 5th Kentucky Cav.
Dillake, Geo. W. - 1st Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Drake, Benj. S. - 2nd Lt. - 5th Kentucky Cav.
Dunlap, W. T. - 1st Lt. - 2nd Kentucky Cav.
Dunlap, A. P. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Eakins, F. G. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Fesdwick, R. W - 2nd Lt. - 5th Kentucky Cav.
Ford, Wm. B. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Fogg, W. S. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Foodwick W. - 2nd Lt. - 5th Kentucky Cav.
Fox, Iham A. - 1st Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Gordon, J. W. - 2nd Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Green, J. W. - Sgt. Maj. - 2nd Kentucky Cav.
Hoggies, Jas. H. - 2nd Lt. - Kentucky Cav.
Hancock, Thornton M.- Cptn.. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Hughes, John S. - 2nd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Harris, F. B. - 2nd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Hart, John W. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Hathaway, S. - 1st Lt. - Morgan's Cav.
Hickman, William L. - 1st Lt. - Chanault's Cav.
Hays, Wm. - 1st Lt. - 20th Kentucky Cav.
Hewitt, J. W. - 2nd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Heggard, T.J. - 1st Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Hunter, George W. - 2nd Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Hulsell, W. J. - 1st Lt. - 4th Kentucky Cav.
Haynes, Robert B. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Ireland, T.C. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Jones, Philip B. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Jones, Jno. W. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Jones, Henry S. - 3rd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Jewett, Michael - 3rd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Kemper, Samuel - 3rd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Kendall, Wm. A. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Lafoon, Jas. K. P. - 2nd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Libeey, John B. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Leathers, Wm. F. - 3rd Lt. - Ward's Tenn Cav.
Lancaster, Benj. J. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Manday, Jas. A. - 2nd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Merritt, Jas. C. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
McMichael, J. W. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Mitchell, H. B. - 3rd Lt. - Ward's Tenn Cav.
Marton, D. K. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Morris, J. D. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Moles, Hanson - 3rd Lt. - 5th Kentucky Cav.
McLane, Jenn W. - 2nd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Moore, Geo. W. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
McNair, Benj. F. - 2nd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Meadows, J. O. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Norris, A. A.. - Captain - Morgan's Cav.
Nickelson, W. F. - 1st Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Nash, Geo. C. - 1st Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Newton, Lewis D. - 2nd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Oldham, Jos. F. - 1st Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Peak, Frank P. - 2nd Lt. - Bura's Artillery
Prewitt, Din. - 3rd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Pierson, T.B. - 3rd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Purdomn, L. - 1st Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Prince, A. R. - 1st Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Pace, Henry L. - 1st Lt. - Morgan's Cav.
Page, W. W. - 1st Lt. - Morgan's Cav.
Peddicord, K. F. - 2nd Lt. - Morgan's Cav.
Park, Robt. J. - 2nd Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Parks, John D. - 3rd Lt. - 2nd Kentucky Cav.
Price P. B. - 2nd Master Sgt.
Payton, L. R. - Private - Duke's Regiment
Rux, Howell T. - 3rd Lt. - Ward's Tenn Cav.
Riddle, John M. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Richards, Charles E. - 3rd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Rankin, Allen A. - 1st Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Sparr, Richard A. - 1st Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Sellers, Van J. - 2nd Lt. - Ward's Tenn Cav.
Sanfley, Michael C. - 2nd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Smith, Wm. H. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Spears, Solomon - 1st Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Sinclair, J. T. - 2nd Lt - 5th Kentucky Cav.
Surber, Alfred - 2nd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Shackelford, J. J. - 3rd Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Stone, Chas. W. - 2nd Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Stalker, John D. - 1st Lt. - Ward's Tenn Cav.
Talbot, J. B. - 2nd Lt. - 7th Kentucky Cav.
Tribble, Dudley - 3rd Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Taylor, C. M. - 3rd Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Taylor, B. W. - Asst. Surgeon
Talbott, Alex - 1st Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Toll, Thom. - 1st Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Thompson, J. R. - 2nd Lt. - Morgan's Cav.
Travis, Jas. - 3rd Lt. - 7th Kentucky Cav.
Wheeler, Jas. L. - 1st Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Williams, Alfred - 2nd Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
Webster. R. A. - 1st Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Webb, Jas. R. - 1st Lt. - 6th Kentucky Cav.
Williamson, L. J. - 1st Lt. - 3rd Kentucky Cav.
Wellington, J. P. - 3rd Lt. - 8th Kentucky Cav.
Wollfork, Sherwood - 2nd Lt. - 10th Kentucky Cav.
Warfield, Carmeal - 2nd Lt. - 14th Kentucky Cav.
Wells, Thos. H. - 1st Lt. - Chenault's Cav.
A plaque in the North Side Aviary commemorates this event and the site of the old penitentiary:
SITE OF THE
ERECTED 1826 - RAZED 1880
WHERE FROM AUGUST 5, 1863 TO
MARCH 18, 1864, WERE
118 OFFICERS OF GENERAL JOHN H.
MORGAN'S CAVALRY C.S.A. THE
ONLY CONFEDERATE PRISONERS OF
HELD IN PITTSBURGH, WHO HAD
SURRENDERED NEAR LISBON,
JULY 26, 1863
THE PENNSYLVANIA HISTORICAL
COMMISSION AND THE PITTSBURGH CHAPTER
UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE
Through the efforts of Daniel Telep of Sewickley twenty-two letters written by Lieutenant Van J. Sellers to Miss Nancy Lyne were discovered, which gives us a glimpse into prison life. Sellers, one of the Confederate prisoners held for approximately eight months between 1863 and 1864, was first captured in May of 1862 but was released in November of that year in a prisoner of war exchange. Immediately he rejoined what he termed "Morgan's Squad." Like Morgan, Sellers was from Kentucky, which was a border state. Since the state was nearly equally divided in its loyalties, the legislature voted against seceding from the Union. Equally interesting was the fact that the Union army avoided drafting Kentuckians into military service. In one of his letters from the penitentiary, Sellers noted that the men had plenty of food. "Have plenty here, thank you, which was not (the) case in South. Then one meal in twenty-four hours was I that I expected."
Mail was apparently censored and out-going letters were restricted to one and one-half pages. By November of 1863 the local residents and some Union officers were questioning the outrageous expense of forty-eight cents a day to feed each of the prisoners. Some residents believed that the "Copperhead Democrats" (those who favored a peace settlement with the South) were coddling "Morgan's horse thieves" with too much liberty. However, in his November 9, 1863, to Miss Lyne, Sellers wrote,
My Dear Nannie:
Imprisonment has so completely addled what few brains I am possessed of that it is impossible to write an entertaining letter.
I assure you it is no easy task to command one's ideas with bare stone walls staring you in the face. It It is true we pass from between them three hours per day, when it is not raining, but that only gives time to straighten our cramped limbs without benefiting the ideas much, and then the autumn, after a glimpse of sunshine, makes the gloom doubly dark."
In another letter, dated January 11, 1864, Sellers complained that the water pipes froze and no heat could get into the cells since the prison was heated by steam. The prisoners had to stay in bed most of the day in order to keep warm when the temperatures dropped to several degrees below zero.
According to Rich Gigler in an article in the Pittsburgh Press Roto, the routine operations of the prison were assigned to the provost marshal Captain E. S. Wright, who after the war served for thirty-three years as warden of the penitentiary. Wright apparently won the respect of the Confederates since one officer later wrote, "I have never ceased to be grateful to him for his manly and soldierly courtesy to us as prisoners."
Gigler noted that Sellers was eventually was moved to Point Lookout, Maryland, and he did not know if Sellers and Lyne ever were rejoined following the war.
Telep and Gigler's work is exceptionally important in understanding this lost episode of Pittsburgh history, especially in light of the fact that Telep uncovered Dr. A. M. Clark's report of November 7, 1863, which gives a detailed critique of conditions at the institution. Clark, who was "surgeon and acting medical inspector of prisoners of war," reported,
I visited the Western Penitentiary for the purpose of making a medical inspection of the quarters of the prisoners of war there confined. The penitentiary is situated in Allegheny City. . .
There are here confined 112 prisoners of war.These occupy cells on the first and second corridors of the center building of the prison. On the first or lower corridor are four double cells about 20 x 16 x 8 feet in dimensions. In each of these five prisoners are confined. The remainder are confined in single cells of half the above size, two in each cell.
The cells are well lighted, admirably well ventilated, and well heated by means of steam. Each is provided with a water faucet and a close stand, so arranged that perfect cleanliness is insured and the escape of effluvia prevented. Gas is also introduced into each cell, of which the prisoners have the privilege until 10 p.m. The prisoners are allowed to exercise in the prison yard for three hours daily. The food is the ordinary prison diet, is good and well cooked, consisting of bread, coffee, fresh beef, soup and vegetables.
No hospital room is specially provided for the prisoners, but the surgeon informs me that as yet none has been needed, no sickness of consequence having occurred. . . .The prisoners are contented and admirably well cared for. They are clean both in person and in clothing, there being a steam laundry attached to the prison.
In my opinion the condition of these prisoners of war is excellent and could not well be improved.
It was long believed that five Confederates were buried in Allegheny Cemetery, but through the efforts of Bill Reynolds three additional names have been identified. It should be noted that Mr. Reynolds was responsible for the restoration of 300 Civil War graves in Uniondale Cemetery. He was also instrumental in doing the research work so Civil War nurse Mary Tepe Leonard would be inducted into the Allegheny County Soldiers and Sailors Hall. (Mary Tepe Leonard was wounded twice, and was one of two women who received the Kearney Cross for valor.) Reynolds was also responsible for identifying the cause of death of the Confederates buried in the GAR plot in Allegheny Cemetery. These Southern veterans are:
Francis A. Knoblock, died April 9, 1864, 158th Virginia, born in Germany and died in Pittsburgh at the age of 44 of consumption;
Corporal Randolph Gideons, died May 15, 1863, 2nd Tennessee Infantry, Company, died of gastro impediment;
2nd Lieutenant Alfred L. Alcorn, died February 12, 1864, 6th Kentucky Cavalry, Company C, age 35, died in Pittsburgh, killed when attempting to escape from the railroad cars;
Lieutenant W. M. Parker, died July 1, 1863, 21st Alabama Infantry, Company D, died of smallpox;
J. R. Manasko, died June 29, 1863, 154th Tennessee Infantry, Company D, died of smallpox;
Barnabas Dials, died October 12, 1863, "Citizen Confederate Prisoner," born in Kentucky, died in Pittsburgh of dysentery;
William C. McGraw, died June 19, 1863, 30th Alabama Infantry, Company D, died of chronic diarrhea;
Corporal T. S. Cowsert, died June 8, 1863, 35th Mississippi Infantry, Company I, died in Pittsburgh at the age of 30.
While the Confederates in Allegheny Cemetery were laid to rest with the Union troops, some of the graves have pointed tombs because tradition has it they did not want Union soldiers to sit on their graves.
One Confederate soldier was the object of a fierce debate. Poor Private J. Collins died while passing through Allegheny County. The Union colonel in charge did not want to take the time to bury Collins. Therefore, he argued that since Collins died in Allegheny County it was the duty of the coroner to provide for his funeral. The coroner refused since Collins was a prisoner of war. Thus Collins was under the jurisdiction of the military, and it was the officer's responsibility to provide Collins with a burial.
So in a small way, a bit of Southern history is interwoven with our region's heritage.
George Swetnam, Pittsylvania Country, New York: Duell, Sloan, Pearce, 1951.
George Swetnam, "Columbiana Celebrates," Pittsburgh Press, Sunday, July 31, 1963.
Joseph A. Borkowski, "Pittsburgh and John Morgan," Pittsburgh Press, Sunday, July 31, 1963.
David Gleason, Pittsburgh Press, Sunday, July 30, 1967. p. 3.
Bennett H. Young, Confederate Wizards of the Saddle, originally published in Boston by Chapple Publishing Company in 1914 and reprinted in Nashville by J. S. Sanders & Company, 1999. pages 367-390.
Sarah A. Killikelly, The History of Pittsburgh: Its Rise and Progress, Pittsburgh: B. C. Gordon Montgomery Co., 1906.
Notes of Mr. William Reynolds.
Joseph A. Borkowski, "List of Confederate Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers of Morgan's Command Who Were Imprisoned in Western Penitentiary," found in the Archives of the Pennsylvania Division of Carnegie Library in Oakland and reprinted with permission of Mr. Borkowski.
Inscription of Plaque at the Aviary on Pittsburgh's North Side.
Rich Gigler, "Letters From A Lieutenant," Pittsburgh Press Roto, April 10, 1983, pages 26 - 32.
George Dallas Mosgrove, "Following Morgan's Plume," Southern Historical Papers, Volume XXXV, Richmond, Virginia, January - December 1907, http://morgans men.tripod.com/plume.htm
Col. J. Stoddard Johnston, "Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan," Confederate Military History, Vol. 9, http://morgans men.tripod.com/genmorgan.htm
Morgan's Men Association Web Site.
"Our Honored Dead at Buffington Island, http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/ Quarters/7196/raiders.htm